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The Mediterranean climate together with the type of urban setting found in mountainous Middle Eastern cities generate much lower runoff yields than previously reported and than usually estimated for urban design. In fact, a close analysis shows that most of the rainwater remains within the cities as a possible source for urban groundwater recharge. The present study examined two locales - Ramallah, an old traditional Palestinian Arab town, and Modiin, a new township in Israel - both situated on the karstic Yarkon Taninim aquifer.

This aquifer supplies the only high-quality drinking water in the region one quarter of the Israeli-Palestinian water demand , which is characterized by dense populations and limited water resources. This paper provides the first measured information on the hydrological effects of urbanization in the area.

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It was found that the shift of the mountainous natural steep slopes into a series of closed-terraces with homes and gardens create areas that are disconnected from the urban runoff response. Roofs drained into the attached gardens create favorable recharge units. Mainly low-gradient roads became the principal source for urban runoff already following mm of rainfall. Parallel roads converted single peak hydrographs towards multi-peak runoff responses, increasing flow duration and reducing peak discharges.

The remaining urban area public parks, natural areas, etc. During extreme rainstorms above mm similar runoff coefficients were measured in urban and natural catchments as a result of the limited areas contributing to runoff in the urban areas, while natural terrain does not have these artificial limits.

Hence, the effects of urbanization decrease with event magnitude and there is significant potential for urban groundwater. Full Text Available The Mediterranean climate together with the type of urban setting found in mountainous Middle Eastern cities generate much lower runoff yields than previously reported and than usually estimated for urban design. The present study examined two locales — Ramallah, an old traditional Palestinian Arab town, and Modiin, a new township in Israel — both situated on the karstic Yarkon Taninim aquifer.

This aquifer supplies the only high-quality drinking water in the region one quarter of the Israeli-Palestinian water demand, which is characterized by dense populations and limited water resources. Mainly low-gradient roads became the principal source for urban runoff already following 1—4 mm of rainfall.

Ramadan & Peace: the Concept of Fasting in Religions

Hence, the effects of urbanization decrease with event magnitude and there is significant. Exploring Middle-Eastern mothers' perceptions and experiences of breastfeeding in Canada: an ethnographic study. The aim of this study was to explore from the Middle-Eastern mothers' perspective, the experience of breastfeeding and their perceptions of attributes of the health care system, community and society on their feeding decisions after migration to Canada.

Qualitative data were collected through four focus groups using an ethnographic approach to guide concurrent data collection and analysis. Survey data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics via pre-tested questionnaires. All mothers, but one who was medically exempt, breastfed their infants from birth and intended to continue for at least 2 years. Religious belief was an umbrella theme that was woven throughout all discussions and it was the strongest determining factor for choosing to breastfeed. However, cultural practices promoted pre-lacteal feeding and hence, jeopardising breastfeeding exclusivity.

Although contradicted in Islamic tradition, most mothers practised fasting during breastfeeding because of misbeliefs about interpretations regarding these rules. Despite high rates of breastfeeding, there is a concern of lack of breastfeeding exclusivity among Middle-Eastern settlers in Canada. To promote successful breastfeeding in Muslim migrant communities, interventions must occur at different levels of influence and should consider religious beliefs to ensure cultural acceptability.

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Practitioners may support exclusive breastfeeding through cultural competency, and respectfully acknowledging Islamic beliefs and cultural practices. Vitamin D deficiency is endemic in Middle Eastern sportsmen. While vitamin D deficiency is well recognized in Middle Eastern women as a result of cultural norms of remaining covered, Middle Eastern men are an under-reported group.

Vitamin D is now known to have multiple effects, including an impact on muscle function, thereby increasing the relevance for sportsmen. The aim of the present study was to evaluate serum hydroxyvitamin D 25 OH D levels in young male Middle Eastern athletes. Cross-sectional study. Ninety-three Middle Eastern men presenting to hospital for an annual screening undertook a blood test to evaluate their vitamin D status.

Ninety-one per cent of athletes were found to be deficient in 25 OH D serum concentration Middle Eastern male athletes. Given the potentially significant long- and short-term effects of 25 OH D deficiency, serum 25 OH D evaluation should be part of the routine assessment in this region. To do this, the bootstrap Data Envelopment Analysis DEA approach was employed in order to provide a robust estimation of the overall technical efficiency and its components: pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency in the case of MENA Islamic banks.

The main results show that over the period of study, pure technical inefficiency was the main source of overall technical inefficiency instead of scale inefficiency. Furthermore, our results show that GCC Islamic banks had stable efficiency scores during the global financial crisis — and in the early post-crisis period — However, a decline in overall technical efficiency of all panels of MENA Islamic banks was recorded in the last two years of the study period — Thus, we recommend that MENA Islamic bank managers focus more on improving their management practices rather than increasing their sizes.

We also recommend that financial authorities in MENA countries implement several regulatory and financial measures in order to ensure the development of MENA Islamic banking. Yet, tapping this opportunity will require new strategies by the wirehouses looking to penetrate into this market. Developing a local national wealth management industry requires letting in fo Full Text Available It is natural for someone looking in on a foreign culture from the outside to interpret what they see and frame their reactions based on their own background and assumptions.

With cultures as a different as those of the Middle East and the West, the potential for blunders increases dramatically, made worse by the high political, diplomatic, military, and commercial stakes involved.

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Leadership culture in this region has been shaped over centuries through a variety of factors, such as reputation, family, and religion, which continue to influence decision making. The present study posits that an understanding of these factors and how they work is crucial for intelligence analysts, policy and decision makers, strategists, and scholars who must find their way through a very unfamiliar cultural landscape in the Middle East. It is hoped that this discussion will in some way assist in the creation of more effective interaction, policies, and analysis associated with the Middle East.

Results demonstrated…. The authors used a factorial multivariate analysis of variance MANOVA to determine whether counselor trainees' group differences on measures of multicultural competence, empathy, and multicultural counseling self-efficacy CSE when working with Middle Eastern American MEA clients were moderated by trainee race. Two hundred and fifty-six…. Assessing health literacy in the eastern and middle-eastern cultures.

Abstract Background Health literacy is a term employed to assess the ability of people to meet the increasing demands related to health in a rapidly evolving society. Low health literacy can affect the social determinants of health, health outcomes and the use of healthcare services. The purpose of the study was to develop a survey construct to assess health literacy within the context of regional culture. Different socioeconomic status among the Eastern and Middle Eastern countries may restr Health literacy is a term employed to assess the ability of people to meet the increasing demands related to health in a rapidly evolving society.

Different socioeconomic status among the Eastern and Middle Eastern countries may restrict, health information access and utilization for those with low literacy. Kiaser-Meyer-Olkin KMO sampling adequacy and Bartlett's tests were used to assess the strength of the relationship among the variables.


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Inclusion of non-health related items were found to be critical in the authentic assessment of health literacy in the Eastern and Middle Eastern population given the influence of social desirability. Thirty-two percentage of the original item construct was eliminated by the focus group for reasons of relevance and impact for the local culture. It assessespatients' ability to comprehend by distinguishing between health and non-health related items.

The EMAHL13 will be a useful too for the reliable assessment of health literacy in countries, where culture plays a significant impact. This will be the first steptowards providing. Occasional Paper No.

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This paper discusses characteristics common to all Middle Eastern students with the exception of Israelis, and addresses itself to those working with Middle Eastern students on American college and university campuses. Middle Eastern students will show themselves to be highly adaptable, but they may demonstrate a formality of manner, particularly…. This curriculum project, a lesson on Islamic Cairo, could be used in a unit on Islamic civilization in an advanced placement high school world history or world civilization course, or it could be used in a college level Middle Eastern history or Islamic civilization course.

Upon completion of the lesson, students will be able to describe in…. A magnetically guided slow positron beam is being constructed at Qatar University and is currently being optimised for regular operation. This is the first positron beam in the Middle East, as well as being the first Arabic positron beam. Novel features in the design include a purely magnetic in-line deflector, working in the solenoid guiding field, to eliminate un-moderated positrons and block the direct line of sight to the source. The impact of this all-magnetic transport on the Larmor radius and resultant beam characteristics are studied by SIMION simulations for both ideal and real life magnetic field variations.

These results are discussed in light of the coupled effect arising from electrostatic beam extraction. Evaluating palliative care needs in Middle Eastern countries. Cancer incidence in Middle Eastern countries, most categorized as low- and middle -income, is predicted to double in the next 10 years, greater than in any other part of the world. To determine knowledge, beliefs, barriers, and resources regarding palliative care services in Middle Eastern countries and use findings to inform future educational and training activities.